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If I have no matching segments with someone, does that mean I'm not related to them?

No, you can be related according to your family tree, but have no genetic trace of this. Due to the randomness of how DNA is transmitted from parent to child, it is possible, though unlikely, to lose all matching segments for relationships as close as second or third cousins. The more distant the relationship, the more likely that you will not see any genetic evidence of the relationship. See "What's the probability of detecting different types of cousins?" for more information.

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