December 2013 – Pending an FDA decision, 23andMe no longer offers new customers access to health reports. Customers who received their health information prior to November 22, 2013 will still be able to see their health reports, but those who purchased after that time will only receive their ancestry information as well as access to their uninterpreted raw data.
The analysis performed is the same for men and women, and both men and women receive ancestry and health information based on DNA they receive from both parents.
Each individual has two types of chromosomes: sex chromosomes, and autosomes. The X and Y chromosomes are the sex chromosomes, and they determine whether you’re female or male. Women have two X chromosomes, while men have an X and a Y. The other 22 chromosomes, which both men and women have, are called autosomes.
The analysis of the 22 autosomes is the same for women and men and provides the same information and level of detail. For each pair of these chromosomes one comes from your mother and the other from your father: two copies of the same recipe with slightly different ingredients. The autosomes are what we use to determine your DNA Relatives, your Ancestry Composition results, your health and trait reports, and many other features. The great majority of our features are based on the autosomes.
However, since men and women have different sex chromosomes, there are some small differences in the information they will receive. For example, men will only display a single X chromosome in features such as Ancestry Composition, while women will have two:
Since women have two X chromosomes instead of an X and a Y, the 23andMe Personal Genome Service does not directly provide paternal haplogroup assignments for women. The paternal haplogroup is traced through the Y chromosome, which women do not inherit.
For females, if a male relative such as your father, brother, paternal uncle or paternal male cousin were to be genotyped then you would be able to infer your own paternal haplogroup information from his. If your brother were to provide a sample, you would learn your maternal haplogroup as well as your paternal haplogroup. However, if your father or father's brother were to provide a sample, you would learn your paternal haplogroup, but not your maternal haplogroup since he does not share your mother. If your biological father participates, you can link his paternal haplogroup to your profile so that it will appear on your own Paternal Line page.
Haplogroups are one small part of your ancestry analysis. The 23andMe Personal Genome Service provides you with information from all branches of your family tree using your autosomal DNA.